biology questions 30

3 questions for Biology

Question 1

Using what you know about osmotic pressure explain how higher levels of sodium in the kidney affect water retention. What hormone is responsible for the initiation of Na+ reabsorption by liver tubules? The hormone ADH also leads to water reabsorption from secretion flow but doesn’t change ion concentrations to do so. How is this accomplished? Are these hormones secreted by the same tissues?

Must use the words/phrases:concentrations, passively, osmotic pressure, paracrine

Question 2

In humans, the hypothalamus regulates nonshivering thermogenesis through adrenal and thyroid hormone secretion. Would you expect to see this mechanism of thermoregulation in clod-blooded animals? Why? What are two examples of thermoregulating behavior in humans?

Must use the words/phrases:ectoderm/endotherm, heat-generating, environment,

Question 3

The excretory tubules of nephrons clear blood of toxic molecules through a 4-step process: 1) passive filtration, 2) active reabsorption (of nutrients), 3) active secretion, and 4) excretion, in that order. Imagine a carcinogen capable of mutating some step in this secretion flow. If a patient (non-diabetic) then shows high levels of glucose in their urine what step(s) of this filtration process have most likely received the mutation? What structure, through a “beating” motion, is responsible for the flow of secretion in the tubules of flatworms?

Must use the words/phrases: small, selective transportation, flame bulb, waste, tubules, cilia

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