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Task1:1). Using the Web or other resources, write a brief paper about RSA, its history, its methodology, and where it is used.

2). Send a brief message (ten words minimum) using the Caesar Cypher.


Task2: and also provide replies to below student posts each in 100 words.

Bhanu-Challenges to Policy-Making in Developing Countries and the Roles of Emerging Tools, Methods and Instruments


Policymaking in developing countries undergoes some challenges which can be rectified with the correct application of informational analytics processes. Basing the idea on the data represented in chapter 17, the government in St. Petersburg is likely to face some problems while implementing the policy of combating the proliferation of drugs (Reddick, 2012). Three main problems might be encountered by the government in policy making on the combat of drug proliferation.

One of the problems is the underestimation of the ability of the system of situational centers while making decisions on how to combat drug proliferation. In developing countries, the system of situational centers and federal vertically oriented are developing at a good rate, but they have not been incorporated in policy making, and therefore the Governor of the St. Petersburg may also find this to be a problem in the policy-making process.

Another problem that can be faced is the failure to exploit the existing resources and capabilities of situational centers. The data given in the textbook shows that 90 % of the current situational centers are only used as a space of video conferencing and this affect the methods of situational modeling and forecasting; therefore poor policy development.

Lastly, the problem of financing policy implementation may also be a significant challenge for policy making. Combating proliferation of drugs is not a simple project because it needs the coordination of various agencies and in the long run, the coordination of these agencies require financial support from the state government.

There are several recommendations that can be implemented to solve the above problems. The solution to the problem of underestimation of situational centers is to link the problem of informational-analytical systems with the priority of the government which is to curb the proliferation of drugs. To fully exploit the situational centers, the government need to be involved in more active development associated with situational modeling and community building. Lastly, the solution of poor financing is to have favorable political goodwill to any policy implementation. With political goodwill, combating the proliferation of drugs will be a policy to fund easily and implement effectively.

spandana-In Chapter 17, the authors provide a chronological description of of tge development of information-analytical systems and situational centers in Russia, particulalry Saint Petersburg. They seek to provide insights into the chalenges to policy making and the role played by emerging tools, methods, and instruments. One of the most ambitious projects to implement analytical systems in the Russian public sector is the state automated system (SAS) “administration”. It is a unified distributed state information system used to collecft, record, process, and analyze data contained in state and municipal information resources, the official state statistics data and any other information needed to support administration decisions in the area of public adminstration (Trutnev, Vidyasova, & Chugunov, 2015). Another important policy-making tool and technique used in the Russsian public sector is includes simulation tools in drug trafficking to help in generating programs to counter crime. The application of these tools in decision-making in Russsian public sector has greatly impacted the development of policies that focus on solving problems faced by the society.

Kovacic and Pecek (2007) examined the use of simulations in public adminstration process to demonstrate their applicabilitu to systems where the human factor is more important. they developed a simulation to evaluate a public adminstration process. This involved comparing the old procedure of obtaining social help with a new one, following the order of the proposed new Law on the General Adminsitrative Porcess. The results of the simulation showed that there were several challlenges in the existing process as well as bottlenecks in the process execusion which could be diminished by a redesign of the process. They concluded that changes to legislation which are connected with adminstrative work ought to be followed by approapriate changes in information and communication technology. The use of simulation can play a crucial role in the adoption of new laws. this supports the use of simulation in Russia in the area of drug trafficking to generate programs to counter crime in this area.

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