# Exploring Statistical Analysis in Undergraduate Nursing: A Sample Study

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## Data Reliability:

The collected data was inputted into SPSS software to analyze it statistically. To check the reliability of the data, Cronbach’s alpha test has been applied.  By measuring internal consistency, it assures reliability. Cronbach’s alpha greater value than 0.5 indicates the strength of the data. Overall collected data has been segregated into three categories as physical activity, child-eating behavior before the pandemic, and child’s eating behavior during the pandemic. The alpha values are 0.9 which shows excellent data reliability.

### Physical Activities:

 Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items .957 .868 14

### Eating Behavior before Pandemic

 Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items .956 .955 35

### Eating Behavior after Pandemic

 Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items .909 .920 36

## Testing:

A t-test for paired samples was applied to the data to test the stated hypothesis. Though the nature of the study is comparative, and data needed to be analyzed by comparing two groups. Therefore, the t-test is the most recommended inferential analysis approach. There are three types of t-tests. One-sample t-test that includes one variable only, verifies the mean for the total population considered for the study.

The second type is a two-sample test that includes two variables, used for nominal or ordinal data in nature, it compares two groups by keeping other factors constant. The third is paired t-test, which is used to compare two groups by relating before and after situations. It includes two variables, computes the mean comparisons, and applies to nominal or ordinal data.

### T-test for Eating Behavior:

The mean represents the mean of the sample, its value indicates equality/inequality among population means. The table presents a mean value greater than 0 which indicates the mean is not equal among the respondents of the study.

Standard deviation represents the scatteredness of data with respect to the mean. A low value for standard deviation indicated data clustering around its mean whereas, a greater value represents data scatteredness. The below table is showing a standard deviation value in the range of 0-1.9 that compliments the mean of the collected data and assures data reliability as well.

95% confidence level explains the acceptance of the hypothesis among the sample size. it encounters for 95% of the population. Its value is dependent on sample size. The larger the sample size more conservative the value will come out. In the table, its value is ranging in between 1 – and 2 showing every 1, or 2 respondents in the sample have responded to the positive hypothesis.

The t- value reflects the difference between the results of a pair. The greater the value, the more the difference exists. The significance value denoted as the p-value accepts or rejects the null hypothesis. It requires at least 0.5 or 50% to reject the null hypothesis. In the table below, 8 pairs are showing a p-value lesser than 0.5 out of 35 pairs, concluding 22.8% had accepted the null hypothesis whereas, 77.14% of the results have rejected the null hypothesis that asserts, there is a significant difference in child eating behavior in comparison to before and during the pandemic; covid-19

 Paired Samples Test Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Pair 1 MY CHILD LOVES FOOD – MY CHILD LOVES FOOD 1.68367 .99856 .02201 1.64051 1.72684 76.490 2057 0.8482 Pair 2 MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN WORRIED – MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN WORRIED 1.65251 1.04165 .02547 1.60255 1.70248 64.869 1671 0.9348 Pair 3 MY CHILD HAS A BIG APETITE – MY CHILD HAS A BIG APETITE 1.67250 1.01646 .02241 1.62856 1.71644 74.645 2057 0.6254 Pair 4 MY CHILD FINISH MEALS QUICKLY – MY CHILD FINISH MEALS QUICKLY 1.67541 1.00972 .02226 1.63176 1.71906 75.274 2057 0.7296 Pair 5 MY CHILD IS INTERESTED IN FOOD – MY CHILD IS INTERESTED IN FOOD 1.67833 1.00873 .02224 1.63472 1.72194 75.479 2057 0.5891 Pair 6 MY CHILD IS ALWAYS ASKING FOR DRINK – MY CHILD IS ALWAYS ASKING FOR DRINK 1.83382 .89972 .01980 1.79498 1.87266 92.598 2063 0.3258 Pair 7 MY CHILD REFUSES FOOD AT FIRST – MY CHILD REFUSES FOOD AT FIRST 1.67541 1.01212 .02231 1.63166 1.71917 75.095 2057 .5410 Pair 8 MY CHILD EATS SLOWLY – MY CHILD EATS SLOWLY 1.67250 1.02123 .02251 1.62835 1.71664 74.296 2057 .8247 Pair 9 MY CHILD EATS LESS WHEN ANGRY – MY CHILD EATS LESS WHEN ANGRY 1.68076 1.00685 .02219 1.63723 1.72428 75.730 2057 .7471 Pair 10 MY CHILD ENJOY TASKING NEW FOOD – MY CHILD ENJOY TASKING NEW FOOD 1.71777 .95754 .02116 1.67628 1.75927 81.184 2047 .6480 Pair 11 MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN HE/SHE TIRED – MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN HE/SHE TIRED 1.67833 1.00969 .02226 1.63468 1.72198 75.407 2057 .5586 Pair 12 MY CHILD IS ALWAYS ASKING FOR FOOD – MY CHILD IS ALWAYS ASKING FOR FOOD 1.67541 1.00924 .02225 1.63178 1.71904 75.310 2057 .8451 Pair 13 MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN ANNOYED – MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN ANNOYED 1.67250 1.02075 .02250 1.62837 1.71662 74.331 2057 .3218 Pair 14 IF ALLOWED TOO, MY CHILD EATS TOO MUCH – IF ALLOWED TOO, MY CHILD EATS TOO MUCH 1.67930 1.00711 .02220 1.63576 1.72284 75.644 2057 .2304 Pair 15 MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN ANXIOUS – MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN ANXIOUS 1.73379 .90668 .01995 1.69467 1.77290 86.917 2065 .7825 Pair 16 MY CHILD ENJOYS A WILD VARIETY OF FOOD – MY CHILD ENJOYS A WILD VARIETY OF FOOD 1.67833 1.01065 .02228 1.63464 1.72202 75.335 2057 .6129 Pair 17 MY CHILD LEAVES FOOD AT HIS/HER PLATE AT THE END OF MEAL – MY CHILD LEAVES FOOD AT HIS/HER PLATE AT THE END OF MEAL 1.67250 1.01741 .02243 1.62852 1.71648 74.575 2057 .4794 Pair 18 MY CHILD TAKES MORE THAN 30 MINUTES TO FINISH A MEAL – MY CHILD TAKES MORE THAN 30 MINUTES TO FINISH A MEAL 1.67541 1.01500 .02237 1.63153 1.71929 74.882 2057 .7812 Pair 19 GIVEN THE CHOICE, MY CHILD WILL EAT MOST OF THE TIME – GIVEN THE CHOICE, MY CHILD WWILLEAT MOST OF THE TIME 1.67930 1.01048 .02227 1.63562 1.72298 75.392 2057 .1847 Pair 20 MY CHILD LOOKS FORWARDS TO MEAL TIME – MY CHILD LOOKS FORWARDS TO MEAL TIME 1.68076 1.00540 .02216 1.63730 1.72422 75.839 2057 .6480 Pair 21 MY CHILD GETS FULL BEFORE HIS MEALS GET FINISHED – MY CHILD GETS FULL BEFORE HIS MEALS GET FINISHED 1.67541 1.00972 .02226 1.63176 1.71906 75.274 2057 .1687 Pair 22 MY CHILD ENJOYS EATING – MY CHILD ENJOYS EATING 1.67833 1.00921 .02225 1.63470 1.72196 75.443 2057 .5104 Pair 23 MY CHILD EATS LESS WHEN UPSET – MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN HE/SHE IS HAPPY 1.67833 1.01065 .02228 1.63464 1.72202 75.335 2057 .6214 Pair 24 MY CHILD IS DIFFICULT TO PLEASE WITH MEAL – MY CHILD IS DIFFICULT TO PLEASE WITH MEAL 1.67541 1.01835 .02245 1.63139 1.71944 74.636 2057 .2493 Pair 25 MY CHILD EATS LESS WHEN UPSET – MY CHILD EATS LESS WHEN UPSET 1.67833 1.00728 .02220 1.63478 1.72187 75.588 2057 .6214 Pair 26 MY CHILD GETS FULL EASILY – MY CHILD GETS FULL EASILY 1.67930 1.00807 .02222 1.63572 1.72288 75.572 2057 .4158 Pair 27 MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN HE/SHE HAS NOTHING ELSE TO DO – MY CHILD EATS MORE WHEN HE/SHE HAS NOTHING ELSE TO DO 1.64494 1.04702 .02309 1.59966 1.69023 71.237 2055 .7401 Pair 28 EVEN IF MY CHILD HAS FULL UP HE/SHE FINDS ROOM TO EAT HIS/HER FAVORITE FOOD – EVEN IF MY CHILD HAS FULL UP HE/SHE FINDS ROOM TO EAT HIS/HER FAVORITE FOOD 1.67541 1.01883 .02246 1.63137 1.71946 74.601 2057 .6412 Pair 29 IF GIVEN THE CHANCE, MY CHWOULDWOLD ALWAYS HAVE FOOD IN HIS/HER MOUTH – IF GIVEN THE CHANCE, MY CHILD WOULD DRINK CONTINUOUSLY THROUGHOUT THE DAY 1.67541 .95325 .02101 1.63420 1.71662 79.733 2057 .5304 Pair 30 MY CHILD CANNOT EAT A MEAL IF S/HE HAD A SNACK JUST BEFORE MEAL – MY CHILD CANNOT EAT A MEAL IF S/HE HAD A SNACK JUST BEFORE MEAL 1.68076 1.00733 .02220 1.63721 1.72430 75.693 2057 .8461 Pair 31 IF GIVEN A CHANCE, MY CHILD WOULD ALWAYS BE DRINKING – IF GIVEN A CHANCE, MY CHILD WOULD ALWAYS BE DRINKING 1.67541 1.01883 .02246 1.63137 1.71946 74.601 2057 .3128 Pair 32 MY CHILD IS INTERESTED IN TASTING FOOD S/HE NEVER TASTED BEFORE – MY CHILD IS INTERESTED IN TASTING FOOD S/HE NEVER TASTED BEFORE 1.67833 1.01257 .02232 1.63456 1.72210 75.192 2057 .6198 Pair 33 MY CHILD DECIDES THAT S/HE DOESNT LIKE THE FOOD, EVEN WITHOUT TASTING IT – MY CHILD DECIDES THAT S/HE DOESNT LIKE THE FOOD, EVEN WITHOUT TASTING IT 1.67833 1.01113 .02229 1.63462 1.72204 75.299 2057 .8124 Pair 34 IF GIVEN A CHANCE, MY CHILD WOULD ALWAYS HAVE FOOD IN HIS/HER MOUTH – IF GIVEN CHANCE, MY CHILD WOULD ALWAYS HAVE FOOD IN HIS/HER MOUTH 1.67930 1.00904 .02224 1.63568 1.72292 75.500 2057 .7348 Pair 35 MY CHILD EATS MORE AND MORE SLOWLY DURING A MEAL – MY CHILD EATS MORE AND MORE SLOWLY DURING A MEAL 1.68076 1.00636 .02218 1.63725 1.72426 75.766 2057 .7425

### Emotional Overeating during Covid-19:

Below 5 – a figure summary table is depicting the proportion of kid’s overeating habits caused by emotions; worried, annoyed, anxiety, and boredom during covid-19. Many guardians highlighted boredom and anxiety are the main reasons.

 EMOTIONAL OVEREATING DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid WORRIED 343 16.5 16.6 16.6 ANNOYED 116 5.6 5.6 22.2 ANXIOUS 502 24.1 24.3 46.5 BOREDOM 1107 53.2 53.5 100.0 Total 2068 99.3 100.0 Missing System 14 .7 Total 2082 100.0

### T-test Physical Activity:

The mean value in the below table is in a range lesser than 2 whereas the standard deviation value is in the range from 0 – 1 indicating the data is clustered to the mean point. 95% confidence level is highlighting every 1 or 2 guardians among respondents are accepting the hypothesis. Where magnitude for t-value is not greater as it was for eating habits for kids, showing a lesser difference happened noticed in between two periods. Out of 7 queries, 2 statements had accepted the null hypothesis with the values: 0.3 and 0.2. whereas 71.4% of respondents have accepted the hypothesis that reflects, that there is a significant association between children’s physical activity with the pandemic.

 Paired Samples Test Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Pair 1 4-6 TIMES A WEEK – 4-6 TIMES A WEEK 1.46989 .66141 .01476 1.44095 1.49883 99.610 2008 .374 Pair 2 2-3 TIMES A WEEK – 2-3 TIMES A WEEK 1.45590 .70496 .01548 1.42555 1.48625 94.076 2074 .749 Pair 3 ONCE A WEEK – ONCE A WEEK 1.70734 .49991 .01102 1.68572 1.72896 154.897 2056 .621 Pair 4 ONCE A MONTH – ONCE A MONTH 1.45976 .73335 .01610 1.42819 1.49133 90.674 2074 .274 Pair 5 LESS THAN ONCE A MONTH – LESS THAN ONCE A MONTH 1.47130 .74647 .01639 1.43915 1.50345 89.741 2072 .592 Pair 6 NEVER – NEVER 1.57796 .61237 .01343 1.55161 1.60430 117.464 2077 .681 Pair 7 DURATION OF EXERCISE – DURATION OF EXERCISE .18444 .40490 .00887 .16704 .20184 20.784 2081 .984

### Demographics

The following tables are summarizing the demographics of respondents of the study.

 GUARDIAN’S AGE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid >55 728 35.0 35.0 35.0 18-35 833 40.0 40.0 40.0 36-55 521 25.0 25.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 GUARDIAN’S GENDER Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid FEMALE 1354 65.0 65.0 65.0 MALE 728 35.0 35.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 GUARDIAN’S NATIONALITY Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid SAUDI 2082 100.0 100.0 100.0

 GUARDIAN’S EDUCATION Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid BACHELOR 1145 55.0 55.0 55.0 GRADUATE 312 15.0 15.0 70.0 HIGH SCH 625 30.0 30.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 MARITAL STATUS Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid MARRIED 1978 95.0 95.0 95.0 DIVORCED/WIDOWED 104 5.0 5.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 NUMBER OF CHILDREN Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 1-2 666 32.0 32.0 32.0 3-5 1083 52.0 52.0 84.0 6-12 333 16.0 16.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 TYPE OF HOUSING Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid OWNED 479 23.0 23.0 23.0 RENTED 1603 77.0 77.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0
 ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 10000-19000 1749 84.0 84.0 84.0 20000+ 333 16.0 16.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 EMPLOYMENT STATUS BEFORE COVID Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid EMPLOYED 2040 98.0 98.0 98.0 UNEMPLOYED 42 2.0 2.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 EMPLOYMENT STATUS AFTER COVID Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid EMPLOYED 1811 87.0 87.0 87.0 UNEMPLOYED 271 13.0 13.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 ISOLATION STATUS Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid WORKING OUTSIDE HOUSE 645 31.0 31.0 31.0 SELF ISOLATION 292 14.0 14.0 45.0 CLOSE CONTACT ISOLATION 1145 55.0 55.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

 FREQUENCY OF OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid DAILY 416 20.0 20.0 20.0 WEEKLY 1416 68.0 68.0 88.0 MONTHLY 250 12.0 12.0 100.0 Total 2082 100.0 100.0

## Discussion

The current study was conducted to testify to the hypothesis i.e., there is a significant unhealthy change in eating behavior of children during the pandemic as compared to before the pandemic and a significant change in physical activities before and after the pandemic Cronbach’s alpha value with a magnitude of 0.9 has assured the reliability of the collected data.

The research was conducted in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia and took Saudi nationals as participants of the research 65% female and 35% male responded to the study. At first, demographics have shown about 68% of respondents had limited their outdoor activities on weekly basis during a pandemic.

During, the pandemic 55% of respondents stayed isolated within the premises of their close contacts only, depicting the intensity of anti-social activity. Then t-test has applied to compare the before and during behavior and activity changes in kids, 3-12 years old. Three-quarters of the research had proven the hypothesis.

Highlighting: due to lockdown, most students had left their physical exercise that used to be done in assembly at school. Guardians had reported they had observed insufficient physical activities in their kids during the pandemic. The frequency table has shown 1107 and 502 parents believed their kid’s inappropriate eating behavior caused by boredom and anxiety respectively occurred during covid-19. Similarly, losing interest in eating, frequent eating, slow eating, or affiliating eating with emotions like anger, anxiety, and upset is the response to the change caused by the pandemic.

## Conclusion

The swift spread of the pandemic has not disturbed the business cycle and living styles and it has also adversely affected kids’ behavioral changes. Long-term lockdown and social distancing affected their daily routine and brought a significant change in their eating and physical activities. The study was designed to inferentially investigate the change caused by pandemics in their eating patterns and physical activities.

For this purpose, primary research had conducted in Eastern Saudi Arabia by adopting a convenience sampling technique. By implementing a few reservations, a sample size of 2,602 has been designed. Out of which 2,082 respondents participated in the study and came up with a response rate of 80% for the study.

T-test has been applied to analyze the comparison between two situations. Outcomes have shown a significant change in children’s physical activity and eating habits caused by the pandemic. The current study has provided a new dimension to studying the children’s behavioral changes, adoptions, and habits altered by pandemics in the region of Saudi Arabia.