Despite the lackluster results, why do practices such as force-ranking systems still find their place in organizations?

When Bill Michael, the former chair of KPMG, told staff to “stop moaning” in a virtual meeting in
February, one of the issues they were complaining about was the “forced distribution” model used
to assess their performance. This way of appraising people is a zombie idea. No matter how many
times it proves disastrous for a company’s culture or morale, it refuses to die.
Generally speaking, “forced distribution”, or “stack ranking”, methods divide employees each year
into a certain percentage of top performers, average performers and underperformers. In the UK’s
senior civil service, for example, the proportions were fixed at 25, 65 and 10 per cent respectively,
until the system was reformed in 2019.
The idea is to avoid “grade inflation” and force managers to have honest conversations with people
who are sub-par. Jack Welch, former chief executive of General Electric, said in 2013 he couldn’t
understand why people thought this cruel. “We grade children in school, often as young as nine or
10, and no one calls that cruel. But somehow adults can’t take it? Explain that one to me.”
There are circumstances where it works. One former accountancy trainee said he had only been
willing to tolerate the long hours and grinding work if he was likely to be promoted. “In that
context you really need to know if you’re in the 25th percentile or 75th percentile,” he told me.
But there are many more examples where the method fails, even on its own terms. The big problem
is that it mixes up someone’s absolute performance with their relative performance against their
peers. You might be meeting all your objectives, for example, yet still be ranked bottom and
labelled “underperforming” in a strong team. Sarah Nickson, a researcher at the Institute of
Government think-tank, said the UK government’s “deep dive” into the forced distribution system
for civil servants found that “a lot of the people in the bottom 10 per cent were not
This not only feels unfair for the employee, it is deeply uncomfortable for the line manager. “What
was difficult was when you had people meeting expectations, graded 3, but because there were so
many 1s, 2s and 3s, there was pressure to give them a 4 and put them on an improvement plan,”
one former manager in a big accountancy firm told me.
In many organisations, line managers assign provisional grades then thrash out the overall
distribution in “moderation” meetings with other managers. But it is hard to objectively rank
people in white-collar jobs doing different things. “You’d have people sat in a room who barely
knew each other, comparing apples with pears,” said a second manager at a different firm. A number of line managers told me they gamed the system. They would put people who had just
joined the team in the bottom bracket, because they were easier to sacrifice. Or, perversely, they
tried to hang on to poor performers so they could put them at the bottom and protect everyone
The system can also disincentivise teamwork. Microsoft’s forced distribution ranking system (since
scrapped) was blamed for creating a toxic culture in the early 2000s that stifled innovation. Good
performers reportedly avoided working together for fear of suffering in the rankings. People would
quietly sabotage their colleagues.
Finally, these systems are often corrosive for morale, which damages the very performance levels
they aim to improve. Research shows that feedback has a moderately positive effect on
performance on average, but in a third of cases it decreases performance. What is key is whether
people feel the feedback is fair.
Employees who express positive emotions after feedback tend to perform better in the future, while
those who express negative feelings go on to perform worse. In a forced distribution, only those
ranked better than average are likely to feel particularly pleased. As Nickson points out, that is by
definition only a minority. “It’s nice for your ego when you’re told you’re a high performer, [but] I
think the question is, does that benefit outweigh the downsides for potentially everyone else?”
Microsoft scrapped forced distribution in 2013. The UK’s senior civil service followed suit in 2019.
KPMG told me it planned to “move away” from the system to “allow much greater flexibility” too.
Human resources departments have had to rethink plenty of old notions since the pandemic hit.
The counterproductive pseudoscience of forced distribution ought to be one idea that finally stays

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