Triple A Office Supplies is about to introduce a new customer service program that will affect all of its 355 sales and service employees. Job duties will be changed and the employee reward system will be altered to fit this new customer focus. Moreover, the company wants to improve the efficiency of work processes, thereby removing some of the comfortable (and often leisurely) routines that employees have followed over the years. Top management is concerned about what types of forces resisting change the company will potentially experience during this change process.

Which of the following types of resistance to change might be used by employees at Triple A as a deliberate strategy to “prove” that the decision is wrong or that the change agent is incompetent?

not-invented-here syndrome

  • fear of the unknown

  • negative valence of change

  • breaking routines

  • incongruent organizational systems

In organizational change, unfreezing may occur by

increasing the driving forces.

  • maintaining the status quo.

  • increasing the restraining forces.

  • removing the driving forces.

  • reducing the urgency to change.

A viral change process relies on ________ to improve the change process.

social networks

  • guiding coalitions

  • outside consultants

  • pilot projects

  • transformational leadership

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