Project Management in Practice Turning London’s Waste Dump into the 2012 Olympic Stadium Back in 2006. the 2012 Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) chose a river-surrounded, 1-square-mile East London disposal site loaded with discarded appliances, tons of waste. shanties, and soil polluted with petrol, oil. lead. tar. and arsenic as the site for their 2012 Olympic Stadium to seat 80.000 visitors. To meet a mid-2011 completion due date, the ODA project man- ager lan Crockford quickly assembled a project team of over 1.000 including governmental employees and other stakeholders, such as the London Development Agency as landowner, politicians, utility firms, com- munity councils, miscellaneous local governmental groups, and of course, the athletes, all of whom wanted a voice in the site design. To clean up the site, the team created a “Soil Hospital” on-site with 60 scientists and technicians who processed and cleaned 800,000 tons of soil. To use the surrounding river for transporting equipment and materials to the site, others on the team dredged 30,000 tons of silt, gravel, garbage, and one car from 2.2 kilometers of the river, which hadn’t seen commercial use in over 35 years. When they were ready to design the stadium, they referred to plans and schedules for London’s 90,000-seat Wembley Stadium (but that took 10 years to build) and Sydney’s 2000 Olympics 80.000- seat stadium (but that would have stretched halfway across the surrounding rivers on the London site). Moreover, the scope for this stadium was that 25.000 seats would be permanent but the other 55.000 would be temporary, built solely for the 2012 Olympics. To respond, the design team planned a highly compact field of play that was acceptable to everyone, includ- ing the athletes. Construction started in May 2008 with the pouring of concrete, but soon they found that the steel-beamed roof as designed would create tur- bulence on the compact field. The team redesigned a lighter, more flexible roof made, in part, with 52 tons of scrap metal from old keys, knives, and guns con- fiscated by the London police, fitting with the ODA’s goals of using recycled materials. The entire stadium uses only one-quarter the amount of steel used in the 2008 Olympic Stadium in Beijing. Construction is on-track to be completed by the mid-2011 deadline at a price of Â£537 million. Source: J. Danko, “Serious Conditioning.” PM Network, Vol. 24. 2. Was the life cycle of this project S-shaped, J-shaped or something else? Considering just the purpose of the river dredging as a project itself, what was the shape of its life cycle?