QUESTION ONE 
Read the following article and answer the questions that follow:
What Is Integrated Supply Chain Management? Integrated supply chain management refers to an enterprise resource planning approach to supply chain management. A business facilitates relationships with all its suppliers and manages all distribution and logistics activities through a centralised system rather than having multiple systems within the organisation. Concentrated professional expertise and cost efficiency are core benefits of the integrated supply chain process, but developing collaboration is an obstacle. Integrated Supply Chain Model Basics Supply chain management (SCM) is a coordinated system of managing the transportation and logistics activities in a manufacturing, wholesale or retail business. The primary purpose of SCM is to optimise efficiency in supply chain distribution activities. Historically, each supply chain member took a concentrated view of its role in moving goods to the next stage. With an integrated supply chain model, all chain members collaborate with the end goal of delivering the best value to consumers. Best Practices for Integrated SCM A primary benefit of integration in supply chain management is that your top professionals in this area coordinate all supply chain activities. This centralised approach leads to more streamlined and efficient activities, as well as implementation of industry best practices in supply chain functions. Development of supplier relationships, acquisition of goods, storage, logistics and transportation are among the primary activities managed in an integrated supply chain. Rather than each division or department in the company overseeing its own activities, the integrated team communicates with leaders in each area to manage these activities. Relationships with vendors normally are stronger with integrated SCM as well. Benefit of Cost Efficiency Another major advantage of an integration in supply chain management is cost efficiency. In some cases, suppliers treat multiple buyers in the same company as separate buying entities. This treatment limits your ability as a business to save on bulk buying. With an integrated system, you are one buyer purchasing larger volumes of goods, which enables you to get lower prices.
The company is also able to have a smaller, dedicated staff in its SCM function than it likely would if it were paying people in all divisions or departments to manage activities. SCM Integration Drawbacks Despite clear benefits to companies that integrate supply chains, there are concerns and drawbacks. Building any type of ERP system in a company that doesn’t have a collaborative 2 culture is difficult. Division and department leaders often are leery of sharing processes and resources. Also, integration requires a strong technology infrastructure and the sharing of critical company data with trusted suppliers. Such sharing exposes the company to suppliers that don’t treat inventory data and company operations information confidential.
1.1 With the use of relevant examples from the article discuss how supply chain integration with the use of technology can improve the overall supply chain with regards to efficiency and effectiveness. (15)
1.2 Elaborate on how supply chain management software can facilitate integration. (10)
1.3 Building any type of ERP system in a company that doesn’t have a collaborative culture is difficult. Division and department leaders often are wary of sharing processes and resources. In addition, integration requires a strong technology infrastructure and the sharing of critical company data with trusted suppliers. With regards to the above extract, assess the enterprise application challenges that organisations experience.