1.)How, according to Beauchamp and Childress, have codes of medical ethics treated obligations and virtues of veracity in medicine?

a. The original Code of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association (AMA) institutes veracity as an obligation for physicians when they treat patients.

b. Although veracity is mentioned in various AMA codes, it has traditionally been unspecified and relatively neglected.

c. Veracity was praised in earlier codes of ethics of the AMA, but issues of truth and honesty are not mentioned at all in the most recent codes.

d. In codes of medical ethics, veracity has only been discussed in terms of other principles such as respect for autonomy.

2.)What is the moral status of the obligations of veracity, privacy, confidentiality, and fidelity, according to Beauchamp and Childress?

a. All are absolutely binding on health care professionals at all times.

b. Fidelity is an absolutely binding principle, whereas veracity, privacy, and confidentiality are only prima facie binding.

c. All are prima facie binding and can sometimes be outweighed by other moral considerations.

d. Privacy and confidentiality must be respected at all times, but conflicts of interest sometimes necessitate difficult moral decisions regarding issues of veracity and fidelity.

3.)Beauchamp and Childress argue that the following is a primary moral responsibility regarding medical errors:

a. Developing systems, including training programs, to reduce medical errors

b. Removing professionals deficient in personal character, knowledge, or skills who make or are likely to make medical errors

4.)Beauchamp and Childress believe that the following is the primary justification of the right to privacy:

a. A cluster of personal and property rights gives rise to a right to privacy.

b. The right to privacy is instrumental, valuable insofar as it enables people to achieve other ends.

c. Privacy is justified in relation to respect for autonomy, because we owe respect to people’s autonomous wishes not to be observed, intruded on, and so forth.

d. Privacy is justified based on health care professionals’ obligations of fidelity to their patients and those patients’ wishes.

c. Disclosing specific medical errors to patients and their families

d. All of the above

5.)According to Beauchamp and Childress, why was the program initiated by the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in New York City to track citizens with diabetes ethically questionable?

a. The program does not identify persons with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes.

b. The program is solely informational; it does not provide any additional resources for prevention and treatment services.

c. This program and others like it may open the way for additional and more extensive registries of sensitive data, without adequate justification.

d. All of the above

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