Professor Arnold is selecting items for an index measuring
gender discrimination. He has written most of the items himself. A
couple of them appear to measure ageism, which Professor Arnold
believes strengthens the measure.
The index described in this scenario does not satisfy the criterion
of ______
A. Unidimensionality
B. General to specific
C. Variance
D. Face validity
Professor Arnold consults a fellow researcher on which items to
include in his measure. His colleague recommended that as a next
step, Professor Arnold edit the index to ensure all criteria for
relationships between items in an index are being met and then
complete an examination of the empirical relationships between
question items.
He has decided to conduct a bivariate analysis of the following
question items:
1. Are female athletes in your program held to lower standards than
their male counterparts?
2. Do female athletes in your program face an uphill battle in
sports considered to be equal with their male counterparts?
Professor Arnold believes that a “Yes” answer to both question
items is an indication of gender discrimination. The following
bivariate tables present two possible distributions of
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