Develop two ads to create a positive attitude toward Hardiplank, one using a cognitive approach and one using an affective approach. Which is best? Why?
CASE 3â€“9 FRAMING PREVENTIVE CARE
Public health officials and other concerned groups have struggled for years trying to persuade women to have breast cancer examinations and men to be checked for prostate cancer. The technical ability to detect disease or diseasecausing conditions has exploded in recent years. There are screening tests for high cholesterol (a heart attack risk factor), high blood pressure, osteoporosis, inherited breast cancer risk, HIV, and colon cancer, among others.
The advantages of early detection are great. Some diseases may be prevented entirely by early detection of potential causes (high cholesterol). Others are treated much more effectively and efficiently if detected and treated early. Thus, early detection can save lives, suffering, and money.
Despite such advantages, the use of early detection technology remains far below an optimal level. Some of this is due to the economics of the medical system. Lower-income individuals often lack adequate health insurance and are reluctant to spend scarce financial resources on tests for problems they may not have. However, even well-insured and prosperous individuals often forgo important tests. For example, it is estimated that 20 percent of American adults have dangerously high cholesterol, and many are unaware of this fact.
Why are consumers reluctant to take steps, often quite simple and inexpensive, that could literally save their lives? Some consumers believe that they are not susceptible to a particular health problem because of their age, genetics, or general condition. Given this belief, they do not see any value in taking a test that they are sure will merely confirm what they already â€œknow.â€ Marketers for Lipitor, a cholesterol-lowering drug, try to counter this by showing that apparently low-risk people, such as figure skater Peggy Fleming, have cholesterol levels that need treatment.
Other consumers are in the opposite camp. They are fearful that the tests might reveal a problem. Even if such a problem is correctable if caught early, it is still bad news to have any type of disease or likelihood of a disease. Further, such a diagnosis generally involves at least short-term unpleasantnessâ€”a change in diet, physical or drug treatments, and anxiety. People are ambivalent at best about seeking out potentially bad news.
In view of the above, how does a fi rm or a nonprofit or public agency persuade consumers to use appropriate early-detection technologies?
A number of opposing advertising approaches have been suggested. Should the ad use statistics or anecdotal evidence? Should the consequences be framed in terms of losses from not being tested or gains from being tested? Examples of each of these approaches are:
â€¢ Statistical, gain. â€œMany women have no family history of breast cancer and have never felt any lump in their breast. But they follow the advice of the American Cancer Society and start having annual screening mammograms when they turn fifty. Because of this, doctors are able to detect their tumors at an early, treatable stage, and they are 30 percent less likely to die of breast cancer.â€
â€¢ Statistical, loss. â€œMany women have no family history of breast cancer and have never felt any lump in their breast. So they donâ€™t follow the advice of the American Cancer Society to start having annual screening mammograms when they turn fi fty. Because of this, doctors are not able to detect tumors at an early, treatable stage, and they are 43 percent more likely to die of breast cancer.â€
â€¢ Anecdotal, gain. â€œNo one in Sara Johnsonâ€™s family had ever gotten breast cancer, and she had never felt any lump in her breast. But she followed the advice of the American Cancer Society and started having annual screening mammograms when she turned fi fty. Because of this, doctors were able to detect her breast tumor at an early, treatable stage, and now Sara can look forward to a long life, watching her grandson, Jeffrey, grow up.â€
â€¢ Anecdotal, loss. â€œNo one in Sara Johnsonâ€™s family had ever gotten breast cancer, and she had never felt any lump in her breast. So she didnâ€™t follow the advice of the American Cancer Society to start having annual screening mammograms when she turned fifty. Because of this, doctors were not able to detect her breast tumor at an early, treatable stage, and now Sara may miss out on a long life, watching her grandson, Jeffrey, grow up.â€