Is there causation in fact? Did the injury occur because of the defendantâ€™s act, or would it have occurred anyway? If the injury would not have occurred without the defendantâ€™s act, then there is causation in fact. Causation in fact usually can be determined by use of the but for test: â€œbut forâ€ the wrongful act, the injury would not have occurred. This test determines whether there was an actual cause-and-effect relationship between the act and the injury suffered. In theory, causation in fact is limitless. One could claim, for example, that â€œbut forâ€ the creation of the world, a particular injury would not have occurred. Thus, as a practical matter, the law has to establish limits, and it does so through the concept of proximate cause.