Comment on the ethics of the following situations:
a. A researcher plans to use invisible ink to code questionnaires to identify respondents in a mail survey designed to get honest opinions from people who have filed to run for political office. The code will allow their identities to be known by the researcher.
b. A political action committee conducts a survey about its particular cause. At the end of the questionnaire, it includes a request for a donation.
c. A telephone interviewer calls at 1 P.M. on Sunday and asks the person who answers the phone to take part in an interview.
d. An industrial marketer wishes to survey its own distributors. It invents the name â€œMountain States Marketing Researchâ€ and sends out an e-mail questionnaire under this name.