To improve worker motivation, organizations typically offer employees opportunities for promotion,wage increases, and engagement in challengingwork. The Japanese career system is typically lagging in terms of promotion and rapidwage increases.Asurveyof workers in 75 companies of Toyota Group was performed to investigate the relative strengths of these incentives in Japanese organizations.13 A questionnaire was distributed and information on a worker’s motivation level, job characteristics, recent change in wage, relative wage level, and perceived difficulty and fairness in promotion was collected. The following table summarizes the multiple regression models used to predict a worker’s motivation level. The first three explanatory variables represent demographic information, followed by two describing types of wage incentives, two describing types of promotion incentives, and four representing job characteristics.

 (a) The researchers separated the sample into blue- and whitecollar workers. Based on the table, how many blue- and whitecollar

workers were included in the analysis?

(b) Do wage incentives appear to increase worker motivation? For both white- and blue-collar workers? Explain your answer.

(c) Repeat part (b) but now focus on the promotion incentives.

(d) The F statistics for the multiple regressions are highly significant but the R2 are relatively low. Explain to a statistical novice

how this can occur.


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